“Descriptive writing is an art form. It’s painting a word picture so that the reader ‘sees’ exactly what you are describing.”
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What’s the big deal about writing descriptively? For one thing, it’s much more than page-filling fluff. Descriptive writing imprints images into the reader’s mind, making you feel as though you’re “right there.” It‘s all about engaging the five senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch to transport the reader and stir emotion. By choosing vivid details and colorful words, good writers bring objects, people, places, and events to life. Instead of merely telling you what they see, they use their words to show you.
Writers use this powerful method to make their pieces memorable—even brilliant—rather than dry and boring. In many ways, description is the most important kind of writing you can teach your children. Why? Because it supports other reasons for writing such as storytelling, informative reports, or persuasion.
Even if your child never aspires to write stories or poetry, description is a wonderful skill to develop. Without it, all other writing falls flat.
Describing a Place
Vivid writing is especially important when describing a place — whether to describe a vista for a travel guide or flesh out a scene in a novel.
Master storyteller Charles Dickens was also a master of using description to create a mood.
It was a town of machinery and tall chimneys, out of which interminable serpents of smoke trailed themselves for ever and ever, and never got uncoiled. It had a black canal in it, and a river that ran purple with ill-smelling dye, arid vast piles of building full of windows where there was a rattling and a trembling all day long, and where the piston of the steam-engine worked monotonously up and down, like the head of an elephant in a state of melancholy madness. ~Charles Dickens, Hard Times
But your child doesn’t have to be a Dickens to add color, depth, and interest to his writing. Here, a ninth grader draws on all five senses to describe a place and create a mood.
Moist and salty, a chilly breeze blows in across the swells, bringing with it the pungent smells of seaweed and fish and making me pull my jacket a little closer. Sea spray transforms into fiery prisms as the waves splash against the shore, catch the last golden rays of sun, and toss them up like liquid crystals.
With a few tips and tools, your child can effectively describe a place too.
Suppose he’s planning to write about a desert. He’ll need to describe basic desert features, of course: sand, rock, hills, and dunes. But deserts aren’t all alike, so his word choices will need to reflect the kind of desert he wants to write about. For example, if he chooses a desert in the southwestern United States, he’ll probably describe plants such as sagebrush, Joshua trees, yuccas, or saguaro cacti.
But if he’s writing about an oasis in the Sahara Desert, where vegetation is much different, he would instead describe date palms, oleanders, acacia trees, succulents, and desert grasses. His description of either desert scene will spring to life as he tells about these places using rich and appropriate details.
Finding Vocabulary for Describing a Place
How do you help your child study his subject and choose strong words that make his writing sparkle? Whether he decides to write about a desert, city, rain forest, or pond, these ideas will help him find words that will form the foundation of his descriptive piece, narrative story, or report.
Using a Search Engine
Search engines such as Google make a great resource for inspiration. In addition to collecting general terms about the location’s flora and fauna (the desert, for example), he’ll also find concrete, specific nouns and adjectives that add color to his writing. Suggest that he begin his search by looking up terms like these:
- desert landscape
- desert features
- desert climate
- desert plants
- desert animals
- desert description
What if your child wants to describe a city instead of a desert? City words are trickier to find, and he may have to hunt more. Try some of these search terms:
- describe city sights
- describe Chicago, describe Pittsburgh, etc.
- “describe downtown” (use quotes)
Using Other Sources
While search engines can lead you to a wealth of information, don’t discount the value of print media such as magazines and books. Also consider digital media such as TV documentaries or DVDs about the subject.
When describing a place, visit in person, if possible. But if not, can you explore a spot with similar features? Many children are visual and tactile learners. If your child wants to describe what a sidewalk looks like, how about taking him outside to explore the sidewalk on your street? It will help him describe the texture, color, and appearance of a city sidewalk, even if you live in a suburb.
As your child searches the Internet, ask him to keep an eye out for adjectives that describe desert or city features (or whatever place he wants to write about). Encourage him to come up with words on his own, but also to watch for words he meets in articles or photo captions.
If he doesn’t understand some of the words, pull out the dictionary and make it a teaching moment! And show him how to use a thesaurus (we love The Synonym Finder[aff]) to find other words that say the same thing. Both of these exercises will help his vocabulary to grow.
Some Desert Adjectives
Desert:harsh, dry, arid, sparse, severe, hot
Rock:sharp, rough, jagged, angular
Grasses:windblown, bent, dry, pale green, brown
Sand:coarse, fine, glittering, shifting, rippling, sifting, white, golden
Sky:pale, intense, cloudless, azure, purple, crimson
Cactus:tall, short, squatty, spiny, prickly, thorny
Date palm:tall, bent, leather (leaves), frayed (leaves)
Some City Adjectives
City:active, bustling, noisy, busy, clean, dirty, windy
Traffic:loud, congested, snarled
Buildings:old, shabby, rundown, crumbling, modern, futuristic, sleek, towering, squat
Buildings (walls):brick, stone, marble, glass, steel, graffiti-covered
Monuments, statues:stone, copper, carved, ancient, moss-covered, faded, green, bronze
Sidewalk:concrete, cement, slick, cracked, tidy, littered, swept
Paint:fresh, weathered, peeling
Signs:neon, weathered, worn, bright, welcoming, flashing
Buses, cars, taxis:belching, crawling, speeding, honking, waiting, screeching
People:hurried, bundled, smiling, frowning, eager, rushed
Use these suggestions to encourage your child come up with ideas for describing a place of his own. You’ll both discover that hunting for words can become a favorite pre-writing game! And as your child dabbles more and more in descriptive writing, I’m confident his words will soon begin to “show” more and “tell” less.
. . . . .
Do you struggle with teaching and grading writing? Does your child’s writing need a boost? Consider adding WriteShop to your curriculum choices for this school year!
The first seven lessons of WriteShop I specifically teach your teen descriptive writing. This important skill is then practiced in the remaining informative and narrative writing lessons. In addition, WriteShop teaches—and offers practice in using—a wide array of sentence variations that help to enhance a student’s paper with fresh style and vigor. When combined with strong, dynamic word choices, sentence variations give dull writing new life.
For younger children, WriteShop Primary introduces K-3rd graders to activities that widen their writing vocabulary. Book C contains three specific descriptive writing lessons. WriteShop Junior, for upper elementary, also provides many opportunities for students to incorporate description.
Learn more here.
Photos: Alice, Dietmar Temps, & Phillip Capper, courtesy of Creative Commons
This is my essay for Common App that I'm using for Stanford's early restrictive action. Does it have enough connections to show the admissions officers who I am?
If I closed my eyes, I would be enveloped by the orchestral sounds of horns honking, people chattering, and footsteps hitting the pavement. If I opened them, bright lights, tall buildings, crowds of people, and billboard signs would encompass my line of sight. Inside, an intermingling surge of excitement and satisfaction would overwhelm my senses and emotions.
There's always something I find mesmerizing about huge cities. Perhaps the vitality and pulse that drive modern city life blend with every city's unique history to create a sense of enchantment. Every characteristic of a city offers its own sense of magic to the metropolitan lifestyle. If my desires were socially acceptable, I would dance down a busy street and swing around a lamppost, or belt out tunes from a Broadway musical. Nothing can compare to the sensation of journeying around Times Square at 11 p.m., staring wide-eyed at the reflecting buildings with huge, colorful screens built onto the windows. In fact, Fitzgerald's poignant descriptions of New York City captivated me to the point where I not only fell in love with The Great Gatsby, but also with the aspects of allurement and adventure that embrace large cities. My favorite composer, George Gershwin, achieved a similar feeling with an added texture of vivaciousness through his passionate, jazzy composition, Rhapsody in Blue, which happens to purposefully describe an energetic, animated city through music.
I only perceive the feeling of ease in a certain environment if the urge to dance cultivates within my soul. I have always held a special place in my heart for art because of the freedom of expression that it allows. Whether I'm gazing out onto the Golden Gate Bridge, wandering around the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, or taking a stroll around 5th Avenue, I can always feel within my bones the yearning to get up and spread my wings. The enthusiasm within me has reached its boiling point and can no longer be contained. My feelings of euphoria need to bubble out and make me squeal like a kettle just so I can show the world exactly how I feel. Unfortunately, emotions cannot physically protrude from my being, so the only way I can express my delight in the world around me is by leaping and spreading my limbs out to symbolize my feelings of freedom and satisfaction with the limitless possibilities for my dreams and goals of success beyond high school and beyond college.
On the other hand, the urban ambiance at night lulls my senses and sways me to sleep. It assuages me and diffuses a mindset of ataraxia to relax the mental tension and anxiety that stress from school, band, and work stirs up. One of my secret enjoyments in life is sitting in a car on the highway driving around downtown Houston at night in complete and utter silence, and all that is visible are the bright lights from the skyscrapers and neighboring cars. I could close my eyes and twirl around for eternity if it meant preserving this sensation of peace and serenity. Ironically, I find tranquility in a bustling environment, whereas others typically find their peace in the serene surroundings of nature. But I suppose one of my quirks is that noisy, stressful, tireless, fast-paced environments allow me to slow down time and enjoy the present.
No matter where I am in the world, so long as I find myself surrounded by crowds of hustling and bustling people going about their everyday lives, I will be able to stop and appreciate the beauty of life because I'll be standing in the very place that suits me best, a vibrant, lively city. There's no specific need for towering skyscrapers or flashy billboards, only streets abounding with people and the sounds of an active, dynamic environment performing their symphony to me.