What is a research paper? A research paper is a piece of academic writing based on its author’s original research on a particular topic, and the analysis and interpretation of the research findings. It can be either a term paper, a master’s thesis or a doctoral dissertation. This Chapter outlines the logical steps to writing a good research paper. To achieve supreme excellence or perfection in anything you do, you need more than just the knowledge. Like the Olympic athlete aiming for the gold medal, you must have a positive attitude and the belief that you have the ability to achieve it. That is the real start to writing an A+ research paper.
STEP 1. HOW TO START A RESEARCH PAPER? CHOOSE A TOPIC
Choose a topic which interests and challenges you. Your attitude towards the topic may well determine the amount of effort and enthusiasm you put into your research.
Focus on a limited aspect, e.g. narrow it down from “Religion” to “World Religion” to “Buddhism”. Obtain teacher approval for your topic before embarking on a full-scale research. If you are uncertain as to what is expected of you in completing the assignment or project, re-read your assignment sheet carefully or ASK your teacher.
Select a subject you can manage. Avoid subjects that are too technical, learned, or specialized. Avoid topics that have only a very narrow range of source materials.
STEP 2. FIND INFORMATION
Surf the Net.
For general or background information, check out useful URLs, general information online, almanacs or encyclopedias online such as Britannica. Use search engines and other search tools as a starting point.
Pay attention to domain name extensions, e.g., .edu (educational institution), .gov (government), or .org (non-profit organization). These sites represent institutions and tend to be more reliable, but be watchful of possible political bias in some government sites. Be selective of .com (commercial) sites. Many .com sites are excellent; however, a large number of them contain advertisements for products and nothing else. Network Solutions provides a link where you can find out what some of the other extensions stand for. Be wary of the millions of personal home pages on the Net. The quality of these personal homepages vary greatly. Learning how to evaluate websites critically and to search effectively on the Internet can help you eliminate irrelevant sites and waste less of your time.
The recent arrival of a variety of domain name extensions such as .biz (commercial businesses), .pro, .info (info on products / organizations), .name, .ws (WebSite), .cc (Cocos Island) or .sh (St. Helena) or .tv (Tuvalu) may create some confusion as you would not be able to tell whether a .cc or .sh or .tv site is in reality a .com, a .edu, a .gov, a .net, or a .org site. Many of the new extensions have no registration restrictions and are available to anyone who wishes to register a distinct domain name that has not already been taken. For instance, if Books.com is unavailable, you can register as Books.ws or Books.info via a service agent such as Register.com.
To find books in the Library use the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog).
Check out other print materials available in the Library:
- Almanacs, Atlases, AV Catalogs
- Encyclopedias and Dictionaries
- Government Publications, Guides, Reports
- Magazines, Newspapers
- Vertical Files
- Yellow Pages, Zip or Postal Code and Telephone Directories
Check out online resources, Web based information services, or special resource materials on CDs:
- Online reference materials (including databases, e.g. SIRS, ProQuest, eLibrary, etc.)
- Google Scholar
- Wall Street Executive Library
- Index to Periodicals and Newspapers (e.g. MagPortal.com, OnlineNewspapers.com, etc.)
- Answers.com – an online dictionary and encyclopedia all-in-one resource that you can install on your computer free of charge and find one-click answers quickly.
- Encyclopedias (e.g.Britannica, Canadian Encyclopedia, etc.)
- Magazines and Journals
- International Public Library
- Subject Specific software (e.g. discovering authors, exploring Shakespeare, etc.)
Check out public and university libraries, businesses, government agencies, as well as contact knowledgeable people in your community.
Read and evaluate. Bookmark your favorite Internet sites. Printout, photocopy, and take notes of relevant information.
As you gather your resources, jot down full bibliographical information (author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page numbers, URLs, creation or modification dates on Web pages, and your date of access) on your work sheet, printout, or enter the information on your laptop or desktop computer for later retrieval. If printing from the Internet, it is wise to set up the browser to print the URL and date of access for every page. Remember that an article without bibliographical information is useless since you cannot cite its source.
STEP 3. MAKE YOUR THESIS STATEMENT
Most research papers normally require a thesis statement. If you are not sure, ask your teacher whether your paper requires it.
A thesis statement is a main idea, a central point of your research paper. The arguments you provide in your paper should be based on this cenral idea, that is why it is so important. Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in one sentence. Your research paper thesis statement is like a declaration of your belief. The main portion of your essay will consist of arguments to support and defend this belief.
A thesis statement should be provided early in your paper – in the introduction part, or in the second paragraph, if your paper is longer.
It is impossible to create a thesis statement immediately when you have just started fulfilling your assignment. Before you write a thesis statement, you should collect, organize and analyze materials and your ideas. You cannot make a finally formulated statement before you have completed your reseach paper. It will naturally change while you develop your ideas.
Stay away from generic and too fuzzy statements and arguments. Use a particular subject. The paper should present something new to the audience to make it interesting and educative to read.
Avoid citing other authors in this section. Present your own ideas in your own words instead of simply copying from other writers.
A thesis statement should do the following:
- Explain the readers how you interpret the subject of the research
- Tell the readers what to expect from your paper
- Answer the question you were asked
- Present your claim which other people may want to dispute
Make sure your thesis is strong.
If you have time and opportunity, show it to your instructor to revise. Otherwise, you may estimate it yourself.
You must check:
- Does my statement answer the question of my assignment?
- Can my position be disputed or opposed? If not, maybe you have just provided a summary instead of creating an argument.
- Is my statement precise enough? It should not be too general and vague.
- Does it pass a so-called “so what” test? Does it provide new/interesting information to your audience or does it simply state a generic fact?
- Does the body of my manuscript support my thesis, or are they different things? Compare them and change if necessary. Remember that changing elements of your work in the process of writing and reviewing is normal.
A well-prepared thesis means well-shaped ideas. It increases credibility of the paper and makes good impression about its author.
More helpful hints about Writing a Research Paper.
STEP 4. MAKE A RESEARCH PAPER OUTLINE
A research paper basically has the following structure:
- Title Page (including the title, the author’s name, the name of a University or colledge, and the publication date)
- Abstract (brief summary of the paper – 250 words or less)
- Introduction (background information on the topic or a brief comment leading into the subject matter – up to 2 pages)
- Manuscript Body, which can be broken down in further sections, depending on the nature of research:
- Materials and Methods
- Results (what are the results obtained)
- Discussion and Conclusion etc.
- Tables, figures, and appendix (optional)
An outline might be formal or informal.
An informal outline (working outline) is a tool helping an author put down and organize their ideas. It is subject to revision, addition and canceling, without paying much attention to form. It helps an author to make their key points clear for him/her and arrange them.
Sometimes the students are asked to submit formal outlines with their research papers.
In a formal outline, numbers and letters are used to arrange topics and subtopics. The letters and numbers of the same kind should be placed directly under one another. The topics denoted by their headings and subheadings should be grouped in a logical order.
All points of a research paper outline must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in your capital Roman numeral.
Example of an outline:I. INTRODUCTION - (Brief comment leading into subject matter - Thesis statement on Shakespeare) II. BODY - Shakespeare's Early Life, Marriage, Works, Later Years A. Early life in Stratford 1. Shakespeare's family a. Shakespeare's father b. Shakespeare's mother 2. Shakespeare's marriage a. Life of Anne Hathaway b. Reference in Shakespeare's Poems B. Shakespeare's works 1. Plays a. Tragedies i. Hamlet ii. Romeo and Juliet b. Comedies i. The Tempest ii. Much Ado About Nothing c. Histories i. King John ii. Richard III iii. Henry VIII 2. Sonnets 3. Other poems C. Shakespeare's Later Years 1. Last two plays 2. Retired to Stratford a. Death b. Burial i. Epitaph on his tombstone III. CONCLUSION A. Analytical summary 1. Shakespeare's early life 2. Shakespeare's works 3. Shakespeare's later years B. Thesis reworded C. Concluding statement
The purpose of an outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing. A good outline is the most important step in writing a good paper. Check your outline to make sure that the points covered flow logically from one to the other. Include in your outline an INTRODUCTION, a BODY, and a CONCLUSION. Make the first outline tentative.
INTRODUCTION – State your thesis and the purpose of your research paper clearly. What is the chief reason you are writing the paper? State also how you plan to approach your topic. Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem? Explain briefly the major points you plan to cover in your paper and why readers should be interested in your topic.
BODY – This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement. Remember the Rule of 3, i.e. find 3 supporting arguments for each position you take. Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument for your final point.
CONCLUSION – Restate or reword your thesis. Summarize your arguments. Explain why you have come to this particular conclusion.
STEP 5. ORGANIZE YOUR NOTES
Organize all the information you have gathered according to your outline. Critically analyze your research data. Using the best available sources, check for accuracy and verify that the information is factual, up-to-date, and correct. Opposing views should also be noted if they help to support your thesis. This is the most important stage in writing a research paper. Here you will analyze, synthesize, sort, and digest the information you have gathered and hopefully learn something about your topic which is the real purpose of doing a research paper in the first place. You must also be able to effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights, and research findings to others through written words as in a report, an essay, a research or term paper, or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids.
Do not include any information that is not relevant to your topic, and do not include information that you do not understand. Make sure the information that you have noted is carefully recorded and in your own words, if possible. Plagiarism is definitely out of the question. Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used very accurately. As you organize your notes, jot down detailed bibliographical information for each cited paragraph and have it ready to transfer to your Works Cited page.
Devise your own method to organize your notes. One method may be to mark with a different color ink or use a hi-liter to identify sections in your outline, e.g., IA3b – meaning that the item “Accessing WWW” belongs in the following location of your outline:I. Understanding the Internet A. What is the Internet 3. How to "Surf the Net" b. Accessing WWW
Group your notes following the outline codes you have assigned to your notes, e.g., IA2, IA3, IA4, etc. This method will enable you to quickly put all your resources in the right place as you organize your notes according to your outline.
STEP 6. WRITE YOUR FIRST DRAFT
Start with the first topic in your outline. Read all the relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked, e.g. with the capital Roman numeral I.
Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay. Use a technique that suits you, e.g. write summaries, paraphrases or quotations on note cards, or separate sheets of lined paper. Mark each card or sheet of paper clearly with your outline code or reference, e.g., IB2a or IIC, etc.
Put all your note cards or paper in the order of your outline, e.g. IA, IB, IC. If using a word processor, create meaningful filenames that match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper, e.g. cut first Introduction paragraph and paste it to IA. Before you know it, you have a well organized term paper completed exactly as outlined.
If it is helpful to you, use a symbol such as “#” to mark the spot where you would like to check back later to edit a paragraph. The unusual symbol will make it easy for you to find the exact location again. Delete the symbol once editing is completed.
STEP 7. REVISE YOUR OUTLINE AND DRAFT
Read your paper for any content errors. Double check the facts and figures. Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline. Reorganize your outline if necessary, but always keep the purpose of your paper and your readers in mind. Use a free grammar and proof reading checker such as Grammarly.
1. Is my thesis statement concise and clear?
2. Did I follow my outline? Did I miss anything?
3. Are my arguments presented in a logical sequence?
4. Are all sources properly cited to ensure that I am not plagiarizing?
5. Have I proved my thesis with strong supporting arguments?
6. Have I made my intentions and points clear in the essay?
Re-read your paper for grammatical errors. Use a dictionary or a thesaurus as needed. Do a spell check. Correct all errors that you can spot and improve the overall quality of the paper to the best of your ability. Get someone else to read it over. Sometimes a second pair of eyes can see mistakes that you missed.
1. Did I begin each paragraph with a proper topic sentence?
2. Have I supported my arguments with documented proof or examples?
3. Any run-on or unfinished sentences?
4. Any unnecessary or repetitious words?
5. Varying lengths of sentences?
6. Does one paragraph or idea flow smoothly into the next?
7. Any spelling or grammatical errors?
8. Quotes accurate in source, spelling, and punctuation?
9. Are all my citations accurate and in correct format?
10. Did I avoid using contractions? Use “cannot” instead of “can’t”, “do not” instead of “don’t”?
11. Did I use third person as much as possible? Avoid using phrases such as “I think”, “I guess”, “I suppose”
12. Have I made my points clear and interesting but remained objective?
13. Did I leave a sense of completion for my reader(s) at the end of the paper?
The Elements of Style, Fourth Edition, by William Strunk, Jr.
For an excellent source on English composition, check out this classic book by William Strunk, Jr. on the Elements of Style. Contents include: Elementary Rules of Usage, Elementary Principles of Composition, Words & Expressions Commonly Misused, An Approach to Style with a List of Reminders: Place yourself in the background, Revise and rewrite, Avoid fancy words, Be clear, Do not inject opinion, Do not take shortcuts at the cost of clarity, … and much more. Details of The Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. partially available online at Bartleby.com. Note: William Strunk, Jr. (1869–1946). The Elements of Style was first published in 1918.
There is also a particular formatting style you must follow. It depends on the field of your studies or the requirements of your University/supervisor.
There are several formatting styles typically used. The most commonly used are the APA style and the MLA style. However, there are such style guides as the Chicago Manual of Style, American Medical Association (AMA) Style, and more.
APA (American Psychological Association) style is mostly used to cite sources within the field of social sciences. The detailed information can be found in Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used for the liberal arts and humanities. The most recent printed guide on it is the MLA Handbook (8th ed.). Instead of providing individual recommendations for each publishing format (printed, online, e-books etc.), this edition recommends a single universal set of guidelines, which writers can apply to any kind of source.
You should necessarily ask your instuctor which formatting style is required for your paper and format it accordingly before submitting.
STEP 8. TYPE FINAL PAPER
All formal reports or essays should be typewritten and printed, preferably on a good quality printer.
Read the assignment sheet again to be sure that you understand fully what is expected of you, and that your essay meets the requirements as specified by your teacher. Know how your essay will be evaluated.
Proofread final paper carefully for spelling, punctuation, missing or duplicated words. Make the effort to ensure that your final paper is clean, tidy, neat, and attractive.
Aim to have your final paper ready a day or two before the deadline. This gives you peace of mind and a chance to triple check. Before handing in your assignment for marking, ask yourself: “Is this the VERY BEST that I can do?”
Performance Enhancing Drugs in Baseball Essay
Performance A1A1 The title of a paper should be clear and direct. The reader should have no question as to what the paper will be about or the intentions of the writer. This paper is written in APA style, which requires a running head across the top of the pages, beginning on the title page. The page numbers also begin on the title page, which is something that is not seen in other styles. Enhancing Drugs in Baseball
Outline A2A2 This outline is written in APA style. Outlines do not need to be complex unless the subject of the paper warrants it. Simple, direct outlines can often be the best choice for the majority of papers.
Some outlines provide the titles of the sections and the page numbers, while others provide only the names of the sections themselves. That can be at the discretion of the writer, or at the discretion of the person requesting the paper (such as a professor).
Introduction A3A3 Headings in this paper are in APA style. They follow the sections listed in the outline.
In the past, breaking a record in a sport like baseball meant people thought the record breaker was a great athlete and had something special above and beyond the majority of his or her competitors. Now, the thought is often that the person may have used a performance enhancing drug, like steroids. The use of these kinds of drugs has been a serious topic in baseball, both at the Major and Minor League levels. It has also been a point of discussion for college and high school athletes, as the concept of taking steroids in order to be more effective as an athlete has been one that has started early for many people. Whether suggested by coaches or other players, many athletes are exposed to the world of drugs that enhance their performance at early ages. Taking these drugs can be risky, but not doing so can mean not being able to remain competitive in some cases. Despite the fact that the drugs are illegal in baseball and other sports, their use is rampant.
In order to really understand the issue and everything that surrounds it, one needs to look at the background of the problem and review the literature that relates to it. From that point, conclusions can be drawn about performance enhancing drug use in baseball. Those conclusions may be able to be extended to other sports, as well. Since steroids and similar performance enhancing drugs all have similar side effects, they are used by athletes in many different sports. That being the case, there is more than just baseball on the line where problems are concerned. For purposes of this paper, however, the researcher has chosen to limit the focus and scope to baseball specifically. There A4A4 This is the thesis statement, and indicates that the issue has two parts to it, not just one. There are serious health issues that come with steroids, but baseball is also a sport that brings in a lot of money. Damaging its reputation could result in a loss of revenue.
Writing the thesis statement in this way indicates that the researcher intends to discuss both of the main concerns that come with steroid use in baseball, instead of just one of those issues.are two main problems with steroids in baseball: the illegality and medical dangers of the drugs themselves, and the damage to the reputation of baseball (and/or specific players) when these drugs are found to have been used and the story is picked up by the media.
Baseball players and other athletes are always looking for ways to enhance their performance. They may want to hit stronger, run faster, throw harder, or any combination of those things. This desire to improve and to be better than their competition has been going on for a very long time, and shows no signs of stopping. Because of these athletes' desire to perform well in their chosen sport, they may begin taking steroids or other performance enhancing drugs (Diacin, A5A5 This paper's citations will be in APA format, which requires in-text citations that include the last name(s) of the author(s) of the work, a comma, and the year of publication. Parks, & Allison, 2003). While the drugs do enhance their ability to perform athletically, there are many issues that come from taking them. They can cause heart problems, anger issues, and significant organ damage (Johnson, 1990). They also cause reputation damage to the player and the team when the use of the drugs is discovered (Johnson, 1990). The beginning of any significant steroid controversy was in 1956, when Russian athletes used anabolic steroids at the World Games (Diacin, Parks, & Allison, 2003). Since that time there have been many other cases of steroid use, and baseball is one of the sports where it has seemed to become commonplace very quickly.
Players such as Alex Sanchez, Jorge Piedra, and Carlos Almanzar have all faced suspensions for performance enhancing drug use in recent years (Players, 2006). Each year, players are suspended. Some insist that they are innocent and will file appeals, others apologize and do not try to say they did not take steroids, and many simply do not comment on the suspension at all. There is a great deal of controversy surrounding steroids for athletes, and it is an important issue facing baseball and other sports (Yesalis, et al, 1993). One of the main ways many have suggested to curb the use of steroids is through drug testing, which would deter many athletes from using substances they know to be unapproved or controlled (McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2001).
There A6A6 When addressing an issue, it is important that both sides are presented. This helps the reader understand the issue more clearly. are critics of these tests, though. They argue that there is a right to privacy that is being violated by the tests, and that they single out athletes in a manner that is unfair, since not everyone is tested (McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2001). Additionally, the argument against testing states that athletes who are not tested at a specific time will begin looking for ways in which they can cheat when they are tested in the future, thus negating the value and validity of the test itself (McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2001). If it is not acceptable to test these athletes for steroid use, it is likely that the use (and abuse) of the drugs will continue. Without testing, however, the problem of reputation becomes moot. With no test to show that an athlete has been taking steroids, there is no media backlash about that particular athlete, team, or sport (Diacin, Parks, & Allison, 2003). That can save face from a public relations standpoint, but it does little to actually keep the game honest and/or protect the athletes from the physical and mental consequences of taking performance enhancing drugs.
The Mitchell Report is the largest piece of evidence and information when it comes to baseball players and their use of performance enhancing drugs. The Report was the compilation of 21 months of investigation and is 409 pages long (Mitchell, 2007). It was released in December of 2007 and names 89 players who allegedly used steroids or some other type of drug to enhance their performance (Mitchell, 2007). The report also made many recommendations about what should be done in order to make baseball better and safer, as well as to restore and then keep its good reputation. More and stronger testing was recommended, and for a wider variety of drugs (Mitchell, 2007). Additionally, the report concluded that it was not only the fault of the players, but of baseball as a whole for not recognizing and addressing the problem sooner. Trying to go back and find every player who had used performance enhancing drugs would not have any real benefit, stated the Report, but the goal should be to eliminate the use of these drugs moving forward (Mitchell, 2007).
Analysis A8A8 An analysis can cite sources that have analyzed the topic of the paper, or it can be a section that is more focused on the researcher's understanding of the issue, depending on the requirements of the paper. Here, the researcher analyzes the issue based on what he/she has seen in the background information and through doing research on the subject.
In the information examined for this paper, there were two main points noted: that there are still large numbers of performance enhancing drugs being used in baseball, and that baseball still has somewhat of a public relations problem because of that usage. Many people still attend baseball games and cheer for their favorite teams and players, but there are others who have moved away from supporting the sport because of its inability to control the illegal drug use of many of the players. That is hurting revenue, because it is not just that fewer people are attending the games. When these people stop supporting baseball or a particular player or team, that also cuts down on the amount of money spent on team souvenirs and gear such as jerseys, hats, and other items. While that many not seem like much of a problem, it can really add up to a lot of money over time. The PR problem of steroids in baseball has to be addressed, as do the physical and emotional problems that can come along with using performance enhancing drugs. Both are detrimental to the sport and the players.
The Mitchell Report A7A7 This is very important to include, as it is the most well-known document regarding the issue. When creating a paper on any subject, it is important to locate and reference the most significant documents or other sources of information regarding that subject. set the tone for a lot of repentance when it first came out, with big names like Mark McGwire coming forward to publicly apologize. Over time, though, this behavior waned. In 2013, six years after the report came out, many players who are suspended for performance enhancing drug use just keep quiet about it. Others say it is untrue and that they will appeal. Few take responsibility for their own actions and choices the way McGwire did. Whether that indicates a shift in the idea of taking responsibility cannot really be determined, although it may appear that way to outsiders. It is more than just not "fessing up" to taking illegal or banned substances, though. These players are also harming their bodies and minds with the drugs they are ingesting in an effort to be better at the game they play. They must feel it is worth the risk, but they are also setting an example for young people who want to play sports and who look up to them. In that sense, they are harming much more than themselves over the long run, which is worthy of consideration.
Sociologically, strain theory A9A9 Anything new that is introduced in the analysis should be cited. This theory is not common knowledge for many people, so it is very important that the reader understands what it involves and why it is relevant to the analysis. addresses the way these athletes are handling their situation. This theory was created by Emile Durkheim and advanced by many others who came after him. It states that social structures may pressure otherwise law-abiding citizens to commit crimes (Agnew, 1992). Because of these pressures, those who choose to use steroids may overlook the serious nature of what they are doing and the damage that can be caused, along with some of the changes they undergo. These changes may be much more obvious to others, such as teammates, friends, and family members. Steroids can cause sleeplessness, hallucinations, and anxiety, along with the aforementioned rage and organ damage. Not all of these problems will be reversible once the steroid use has stopped. Permanent damage to the players and to the reputation of the game is being done by those who continue to take performance enhancing drugs, but the pressure to do so may outweigh that information in the minds of the players who are making that particular choice.
Not every player who takes performance enhancing drugs is likely doing so because of strain theory. There are other reasons why a person would make that choice. However, the reasons behind the choices made by these players may not be as important as the effects their choices are having. Even without the concerns over their own health and safety, they should be aware of the reputation that the game of baseball is getting. In turn, that can affect not only ticket sales and profit margins, but also the way young people look at the game and the athletes they idolize. Up and coming baseball players in high school and college may already begin to feel the pressure to take illegal substances to enhance their performance, which can have serious long-term consequences for them.
Many players are in good shape through their younger years, but as they get older they will face a significant number of health problems based on their past use of banned substances like steroids. By that time, there is nothing that can be done to reverse the damage. Additionally, some good athletes who would have done well in the sport may decide not to play it because they do not want the pressure to take these drugs. That could cause baseball teams to lose out on excellent talent, which is worth considering. Overall, though, it does not appear that baseball is doing enough to curb steroid use in its players, even after the Mitchell Report and the changes that were made in the wake of it. Each year, there are still players being suspended for illegal drugs that will enhance their performance on the field.
Baseball is a sport that many Americans love to play and love to watch. It has been the national pastime for a number of years, and is part of what often first comes to mind when people are asked about what they consider to be "American." The steroid use that has plagued the sport in recent years, though, has put a damper on it for a large number of people who used to be fans. It has also affected the people who may have wanted to play the sport at some point in their lives, because they may end up feeling as though they have to choose between a life of illegal substance use and a life without playing the game they love. Between the health risks of taking steroids, the reputation damage that is being done to the sport of baseball, and the harm that could be done by encouraging young people to abuse performance enhancing drugs to get into playing baseball professionally, there are important issues that can and should be addressed to make the sport "cleaner" for everyone involved.
References C1C1 "References" is the term used to describe the bibliography or reference page in an APA-cited paper. Other citation styles use other terminology. All of the sources on this reference page are in APA style.
Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory. Criminology 30(1), 47-87
Diacin, M. J., Parks, J. B., & Allison, P. C. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing, and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior,26(1): 1-16
Johnson, M.D. (1990). Anabolic steroid use in adolescent athletes. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 37:1111-1123
McCabe, M. P., & Ricciardelli, L. A. (2001). Parent, peer, and media influences on body image and strategies to both increase and decrease body size among adolescent boys and girls. Adolescence, 36: 225-240.
Mitchell Report: Summary and recommendations. (2007). Retrieved from http://files.mlb.com/summary.pdf
Players suspended under baseball's steroids policy. (2006). ESPN. Retrieved from http://sports.espn.go.com/mlb/news/story?id=2474192
Yesalis, C.E., Kennedy, N.J., Kopstein, A.N., & Bahrke, M.S. (1993). Anabolic-androgenic steroid use in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270:1217-1221.Download Full Essay