The first settlers on the territory of Sochi appeared 400-350 thousand years ago in lower Paleolithic age. A plenty of artifacts and archeological monuments were discovered and studied here: caves, open sites, ancient settlements, dolmens, ruins of fortresses and temples, burial grounds and mounds. Archeological works conducted in the area of Sochi denoted the territory as unique in variety, number and concentration of archeological monuments, 200 of which are registered and looked after. Among them are a Roman-Byzantine fortress on the river Godlik, a medieval cathedral in the settlement of Lo’o and etc.
In the period of 4-1cc BC on the northeast Black Sea coast tribes of Geniokhs inhabited the major part of the area modern Sohi occupies. Aboriginal historical monuments well preserved to our days must be comprehensively studied.
Starting the second half of the 16th century the Caucasus turned into the cockpit for Russia, Turkey and Persia; as the result of the war the Black Sea coast from the mouth of the river Kuban to the fort of Saint Nikolay passed to Russia. Later, in the 19th century several forts were built in Sochi, their ruins are regarded as historical monuments. After the Caucasian war of 1864 the aboriginal population was forced to leave their mother land. Native dwellers were replaced by the Russians, the Ukrainians, the Byelorussians, the Armenians, The Georgians, the Greeks and other nationalities forming a cosmopolite people stock of modern Sochi.
The end of the war marked the beginning of study of the Black Sea coast therapeutic factors. However, Russian government wasn’t able to develop the new lands on its own and, in order to fix the problem, entrepreneurs and businessmen of that time were offered to invest money in the Sochi Region. Russian bourgeoisie saw the true value of the land; that is why so many estates, which used to belong to famous families of the past can still be found in this rich and beautiful land.
An important role in Sochi’s becoming a resort was assigned to the special commission conducting the study, with start in 1898, of the Black Sea coast right from Novorossiysk to Sukhumi. The survey proved that, due to natural resources the Black Sea coast possessed, balneotherapeutic and climatic health resorts could be constructed there.
Sochi got the city status July 31, 1917, when estates of rich Russian noblemen, counts along with imperial mansion Dagomys were determined as a part of the city. In the end of 19 – the beginning of 20cc. the peculiar architecture style of Sochi was being formed. The main principle of the construction implied creation of the city - garden. The architecture style was specified by pavilion-shaped houses special to parks, as architects tried to make the layout of the city and the natural landscape form a perfect whole.
After the revolution of 1917 the city was intensively reconstructed, especially in 1930s. The soviet government sponsored building of numerous sanatoriums, bridges (civil architecture monuments) and other complex facilities. Sochi becomes the all-soviet health resort.
In 1961 Sochi annexed the districts of Adler and Lazarevskoye and, according to the new borders, stretched for over 150 kilometers along the Black Sea coast.
Now Sochi is developing very fast, as it hopes to hold Olympic games-2014.
More Winter Olympic Games Lesson IdeasThe Olympic Games offer a perfect opportunity to teach about world geography and culture. In the opening ceremonies, athletes from many countries will dress in costumes reflecting the cultures of their homelands. The athletes will carry flags of their native countries too. The Olympic Parade of Nations provides a perfect opportunity for students to
--- research and report on countries of the world.
--- draw the flags of countries whose athletes are competing.
--- learn to say hello in different languages.
--- compare and contrast countries according to size and population.
--- calculate the distance between your home and the homes of some of the athletes.
--- color a world map to show the countries whose athletes will be in Sochi.
But that's just the beginning! We've got plenty more ideas to follow...
Track the Weather. Use your favorite weather source to keep track of the weather at the Games. You might arrange students into groups and assign each group to track the weather at different parts of the school day. Students can use the easy-to-use Create a Graph tool to illustrate the temperature data they collect in graph form.
Sports Talk. Assign each student, or a pair of students, to track each of the 15 winter Olympic Sports. They can keep the class informed about the sport, its competitors, how the sport is judged, terminology related to it, and more. Good basic sources of information include the official Olympics site and NBC's site.
Read a Schedule. When are the different Olympic events scheduled to take place? NBC offers a Complete Olympic Schedule. Ask students questions such as On what date does the figure skating competition begin?, On how many days do bobsledding finals take place, or Which competition starts first -- the alpine skiing competition or the freestyle skiing competition?
Tracking the Medals Race. Have each student track the medal results for a different country. Create a chart and update it daily so that in the end you have a chart that looks like this Final Medal Standings chart.
Math (for young students). Invite students to use the Lillehammer 1994 Winter Olympic Medal Standing Chart to answer the math questions on Math Word Problems: Olympic Medals printable work sheet. (Teachers might let students complete this work sheet while online or they might print out and copy or post the chart for students to use.)
ANSWER KEY: 1. 4 more; 2. 13 medals; 3. 23 medals; 4. South Korea; 5. 4 more; 6. 43 gold medals; 7. 16 bronze medals; 8. Canada; 9. 4 teams; 10. 7 medals.]
Math (for older students). Hand out copies of Medal Math printable work sheet. The Teaching Master provides word problem practice in adding decimals and other math concepts -- all related, of course, to the Winter Olympics.
ANSWER KEY: 1. Syd, Peter, Hans; 2. Shelley, Christie, Annlee; 3. Michela Fijini, 13 seconds.
Geography. Invite students to work in pairs to complete this activity. Provide each student with a copy of a world map on which s/he can write. (Need a printable outline map? Click one of these links: 1, 2, 3, 4 Students might use this source to learn about the sites of Winter Olympic competitions dating back to the first Games in 1924. Challenge students to use atlases, the Internet, and other resources to locate on their maps the sites of all the Winter Games. They can write the year on the map; for example, the year "1924" will appear on the map at the location of Chamonix, France.
OLYMPIC LESSONS CAUGHT ON THE NET
We searched the Net to see what other lesson ideas we might find. The following online lessons include some that relate to previous Olympic Games because creative teachers will be able to adapt those activities to the current games. (Approximate grade levels for many activities appear in parentheses.)
Mr. Donn's Ancient Greek Olympics Simulation Unit (Grades 3-12)
Journey Through the Olympic Games (WebQuest)
Winter Olympics in the Gym (Grades 3-5)
Fractions in Olympics (Grades 4-8)
Olympic Leaders (Grades 3-12)
Winter Olympic Games Project (Grades 9-12)